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西藏洛隆县巴曲冰湖溃决型泥石流演进过程模拟研究

刘波 胡卸文 何坤 黄涛 韩玫 席传杰 文强 张晓宇

刘波, 胡卸文, 何坤, 黄涛, 韩玫, 席传杰, 文强, 张晓宇. 西藏洛隆县巴曲冰湖溃决型泥石流演进过程模拟研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(5): 150-160. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202103104
引用本文: 刘波, 胡卸文, 何坤, 黄涛, 韩玫, 席传杰, 文强, 张晓宇. 西藏洛隆县巴曲冰湖溃决型泥石流演进过程模拟研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(5): 150-160. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202103104
LIU Bo, HU Xiewen, HE Kun, HUANG Tao, HAN Mei, XI Chuanjie, WEN Qiang, ZHANG Xiaoyu. Characteristics and evolution process simulation of the Baqu gully debris flow triggered by ice-lake outburst in Luolong County of Tibet, China[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(5): 150-160. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202103104
Citation: LIU Bo, HU Xiewen, HE Kun, HUANG Tao, HAN Mei, XI Chuanjie, WEN Qiang, ZHANG Xiaoyu. Characteristics and evolution process simulation of the Baqu gully debris flow triggered by ice-lake outburst in Luolong County of Tibet, China[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(5): 150-160. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202103104

西藏洛隆县巴曲冰湖溃决型泥石流演进过程模拟研究

doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202103104
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2018YCF1505401);国家自然科学基金项目(41731285);地质灾害防治与地质环境保护国家重点实验室开放式基金(SKLGP2018K011)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘波(1994-),男,博士研究生,主要从事地质灾害致灾机理及防治方面的研究工作。E-mail:geliubo@my.swjtu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    胡卸文(1963-),男,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事工程地质、环境地质方面的教学与研究工作。E-mail:huxiewen@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P642.3

Characteristics and evolution process simulation of the Baqu gully debris flow triggered by ice-lake outburst in Luolong County of Tibet, China

  • 摘要: 巴曲冰湖溃决型泥石流紧邻川藏铁路某车站,可能对其建设及运营产生威胁。首先基于现场调查和遥感解译查明了巴曲泥石流的基本特征,采用规范公式计算了巴曲暴雨泥石流的动力学参数。然后采用无量纲堵塞指数(DBI)评价了巴曲沟内7个主要冰湖堰塞坝的稳定性。评价结果表明:巴曲1#冰湖堰塞坝的DBI值处于非稳定区,3#、4#和6#堰塞坝的DBI值处于非稳定区与稳定区之间,存在发生冰湖溃决的风险。最后,采用快速物质运动模拟软件(RAMMS)单相流数值方法,模拟分析了巴曲沟在4个极端场景下的冰湖溃决演进过程。模拟结果显示:巴曲冰湖溃决后的演进过程分为开始-汇流-冲出-停积四个阶段,共历时约4.5 h。在1#—4#及6#冰湖堰塞体全部溃决工况下,冰湖溃决泥石流在沟口的最大流速为5.92 m/s,最大深度为4.35 m,最大流量为1 954.42 m3/s,为暴雨型泥石流的5.1倍。除此之外,4个场景下冰湖溃决洪水的影响范围都经过拟建车站,泥石流最大深度分别为1.91,3.36,1.53,4.35 m。因此在车站设计时需采取排导槽或导流堤等工程措施进行防护治理。上述研究结果可为川藏铁路选线及青藏高原东部地区的冰湖溃决型泥石流防治提供参考。
  • 图  1  巴曲沟全貌图

    Figure  1.  The view of the whole Baqu gully

    图  2  巴曲冰湖泥石流物源分布图

    Figure  2.  Geological setting and material sources of Baqu glacier-lake debris flow gully

    图  3  巴曲冰湖泥石流沟的主沟纵断面图(图2中1−1’剖面)

    Figure  3.  Vertical section 1-1’ of main gully of the Baqu debris flow (section 1−1’ in Fig. 2)

    图  4  巴曲泥石流典型物源

    (a)沟道物源;(b)崩塌物源;(c)崩塌物源;(d)冻融物源

    Figure  4.  Typical sources photography of Baqu debris flow

    图  5  巴曲流域冰湖分布图

    Figure  5.  Distribution of glacier lakes in the Baqu catchment

    图  6  巴曲各冰湖堰塞体的DBI判别图

    Figure  6.  DBI discriminant diagram of the Baqu glacial lake dams

    图  7  场景四下巴曲冰湖群溃决后演进过程

    注:(a)(b)(c)(d)分别为巴曲冰湖泥石流起始阶段、汇流阶段、冲出阶段和停积阶段的泥深分布云图,(e)(f)(g)(h)分别为对应的速度分布云图。

    Figure  7.  Evolution process of glacier lakes in Baqu after outburst under scenario 4

    图  8  四种场景下巴曲冰湖溃决危害性

    注:(a)(c)(e)(g)分别为场景一、二、三、四的流深分布图,(b)(d)(f)(h)分别为对应场景的沟口影响范围放大图。

    Figure  8.  The hazard map of glacier lakes outburst in four scenes.

    表  1  巴曲冰湖面积及库容

    Table  1.   Area and volume of glacier lakes in Baqu

    编号面积/km2高程/m平均深度/m库容/(104 m3
    10.194453017.29335.51
    20.01045474.984.98
    30.075466611.6087.02
    40.138466814.99206.85
    50.02350237.0616.24
    60.106498013.42142.22
    70.04149639.0036.91
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  巴曲泥石流沟口流速

    Table  2.   Velocity of debris flow at the mouth of the Baqu gully

    降雨频率/%2010521
    流体平均泥深/m0.60.750.941.21.35
    泥石流流速/(m·s−13.253.784.395.175.59
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  巴曲泥石流沟口洪峰流量

    Table  3.   The peak discharge at the mouth of Baqu gully

    降雨频率/ %2010521
    泥石流洪峰流量/(m3·s−1105.67169.03232.87318.25383.67
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  巴曲泥石流整体冲击力及最大块石冲击力

    Table  4.   Impact pressure and maximum impact force of rock mass in the Baqu debris flow

    降雨频率/%2010521
    设计流速/(m·s−13.253.784.895.175.59
    整体冲击力/kPa27.236.655.561.980.1
    单块最大冲击力/kN336.4390.4505.6534.1577.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  巴曲泥石流一次冲出总量及固体物质量

    Table  5.   Total amount of run-out metarials and solid materials of the Baqu debris flow

    降雨频率/%2010521
    时间/min3034384650
    一次泥石流总量预测 /(104 m35.029.1014.0223.1930.39
    冲出固体物质总量预测 /(104 m32.163.926.039.9813.08
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  巴曲冰湖沟口泥石流沟特征参数汇总表

    Table  6.   Summary of characteristic parameters at the mouth of the Baqu glacier lake debris flow gully

    参数流量/(m3·s−1流速/(m·s−1泥深/m
    计算方法规范模拟规范模拟规范模拟
    降雨频率/%1全溃1全溃1全溃
    车站位置383.619545.595.921.354.35
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-30
  • 修回日期:  2021-06-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-09
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-10

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