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川藏铁路廊道关键水工环地质问题:现状与发展方向

张永双 郭长宝 李向全 毕俊擘 马剑飞 刘峰

张永双, 郭长宝, 李向全, 毕俊擘, 马剑飞, 刘峰. 川藏铁路廊道关键水工环地质问题:现状与发展方向[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(5): 1-12. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104001
引用本文: 张永双, 郭长宝, 李向全, 毕俊擘, 马剑飞, 刘峰. 川藏铁路廊道关键水工环地质问题:现状与发展方向[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(5): 1-12. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104001
ZHANG Yongshuang, GUO Changbao, LI Xiangquan, BI Junbo, MA Jianfei, LIU Feng. Key problems on hydro-engineering-environmental geology along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway corridor: Current status and development direction[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(5): 1-12. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104001
Citation: ZHANG Yongshuang, GUO Changbao, LI Xiangquan, BI Junbo, MA Jianfei, LIU Feng. Key problems on hydro-engineering-environmental geology along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway corridor: Current status and development direction[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(5): 1-12. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104001

川藏铁路廊道关键水工环地质问题:现状与发展方向

doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104001
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41941017;41731287);中国地质调查局地质调查专项项目(20190505)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张永双(1968-),男,博士,研究员,主要从事工程地质与地质灾害研究。E-mail:zhys100@sohu.com

  • 中图分类号: P641; P642

Key problems on hydro-engineering-environmental geology along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway corridor: Current status and development direction

  • 摘要: 川藏铁路是我国正在建设的世纪工程,复杂的地质演化史导致铁路廊道地质环境差异大,水文地质、工程地质和环境地质问题复杂多变,在工程施工及今后运营中值得高度关注。在简要回顾川藏铁路廊道以往地质工作的基础上,阐述了铁路建设面临的水工环地质问题,包括高原构造岩溶高压突涌水、断裂带基岩裂隙高压突水突泥、高温热水热害等水文地质问题,活动断裂断错与强震灾害、高地应力与深埋隧道岩爆和大变形、特殊岩土体的不良工程特性与灾害效应、高位远程滑坡灾害链等工程地质问题,含煤地层和热液矿床酸性水腐蚀性、湿地生态退化演替、铁路建设与敏感生态环境的互馈效应等环境地质问题。提出了今后值得深入研究的关键科学技术问题:水文地质方面包括高原岩溶发育层序规律与构造岩溶蓄水构造类型、深埋隧道突水突泥的孕灾致灾模式与预测方法、活动断裂控热机制与地下热水循环模式、高温热害风险识别及地热资源化技术等问题;工程地质与地质灾害方面包括活动断裂的精细特征与工程断错效应、复杂地质构造区深部构造应力场特征、构造混杂岩带工程地质特性与灾害效应、水-力-热多场耦合作用下深埋隧道围岩稳定性与灾害效应、内外动力耦合作用下的高位远程滑坡机理及风险防控技术等问题;环境地质方面包括高原多源水转化循环机制与生态脆弱区生态需水量控制技术、隧道建设的水文生态环境效应、生态地质环境监测评价与保护关键技术、全球气候变暖的地质生态环境效应等问题。从公益性地质调查和商业性工程勘察相结合的角度,提出了地质调查是基础、科技攻关是关键、灾害隐患监测与工程治理协调推进的应对策略,为国家重大工程规划区的水工环地质工作发展方向提供了参考建议。
  • 图  1  川藏铁路廊道地质背景图

      注:①龙门山前山断裂;②龙门山中央断裂;③龙门山后山断裂;④玉科断裂;⑤鲜水河断裂;⑥小金河断裂;⑦玉农希断裂;⑧甘孜—理塘断裂;⑨理塘—徳巫断裂;⑩赠科—硕曲断裂;⑪德格—乡城断裂;⑫金沙江断裂带;⑬巴塘断裂;⑭字嘎寺—德钦断裂;⑮澜沧江断裂;⑯巴青—类乌齐断裂;⑰怒江断裂;⑱边坝—洛隆断裂;⑲嘉黎断裂;⑳雅鲁藏布江断裂;㉑错那—沃卡断裂;亚东—谷露断裂。

    Figure  1.  Geological background of Sichuan-Tibet traffic corridor

    图  2  川藏铁路廊道区域水文地质简图

    Figure  2.  Sketch map of regional hydrogeology along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway corridor

    图  3  川藏铁路廊道地热异常区分布图

    Figure  3.  Distribution of geothermal anomalous areas along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway corridor

    图  4  郭达山隧道钻孔饼状岩心发育特征

    Figure  4.  Characteristics of the pie-shaped core of a borehole in the Guodashan tunnel

    图  5  构造混杂岩带中的黏土化蚀变软岩发育特征

    Figure  5.  Development characteristics of clay-altered soft rock in structural mélange

    表  1  八宿-然乌一带盐类沉淀物矿物成分及工程评价

    Table  1.   Mineral composition and engineering evaluation of salt deposits in Basu-Ranwu region

    沉积物特征XRD法矿物成分鉴定1∶10水提取液工程评价
    盐类矿物非盐类矿物颜色pH值${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-} $易溶盐溶解性腐蚀性盐胀性
    煤系地层白色松软絮状物泻盐、石膏石英、伊利石、高岭石无色8.3213.9123.96
    黄绿色皮壳状、瘤状沉淀物镁叶绿矾、叶绿矾石英玫瑰红2.0635.7869.98
    硫化矿氧化带灰白色絮状物泻盐、石膏石英、伊利石、高岭石无色4.2522.7435.97
    灰绿色半硬质瘤状物镁叶绿矾、石膏、叶绿矾石英玫瑰红2.2029.5659.83
      注:(1)${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-} $含量采用BaSO4重量法测定;(2)${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-} $和易溶盐的单位为g/100 g;(3)工程评价中溶解性大小依据1∶10水提液含盐量(g/100 g),腐蚀性评价依据国家标准(GB 50021—2001)土中${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-} $含量和pH值大小,盐胀性主要根据盐类矿物结晶水数量判别。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-01
  • 修回日期:  2021-05-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-09
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-10

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